A new study shows that horseback riding combined with cognitive exercises can improve the motor skills of young people with neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
“We wanted to investigate how a combination of equine-assisted activities and various brain-building tasks, administered by a speech therapist, would affect motor skills in children with disorders including autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity,” said Dr. Brandon Rigby of the Texas Woman’s University.
“Our findings should be helpful to therapists and other healthcare professionals who are tasked with implementing strategies and interventions to improve motor skill proficiency in children and youth with ADHD and ASD, which were the most common diagnoses in our study.”
For the study, the research team recruited 25 children with neurodevelopmental disorders between the ages of 5 and 16. Each child completed one of several different programs ranging in length from eight weeks to one year. The programs included weekly introductory horseback riding, as well as sessions with a speech therapist two to three times a week.
During the horseback riding, the children learned about horse anatomy, riding equipment, and the basics of riding, the researchers reported.
The brain-building activities focused on exercises that train the brain to process sensory information, such as sound, sight, balance and spatial orientation. These sessions included music therapy, eye tracking exercises, and hand-eye coordination tasks. The children and their parents were also given daily exercises that they could perform at home.
After eight weeks of the program, the children showed improved motor skills, although there was sometimes a delay before the changes became apparent, the researchers discovered.
For the participants who continued the program for one year, these benefits continued for the duration of the study, according to the study’s findings.
These participants also showed improvements in their behavior and academic performance, including social and communication skills.
Additionally, anecdotal responses from parents and caregivers suggested that the children were more positive, focused, and calm both in and outside of the program.
Given the small size of the study, larger-scale research is still needed to better understand the potential benefits to the range of neurodevelopmental disorders, the researchers noted.
Some limitations include the varying diagnoses of the participants, and the allowance to continue prescribed medications or therapies outside the scope of this program. Despite this, the program’s results are promising, the researchers said, adding they hope this will inspire further interest in cross-disciplinary programs.
“These findings may allow for a greater demand for these programs, ultimately making them more accessible and affordable,” Rigby said.
The study was published in Frontiers in Veterinary Science.