Een kind opvoeden met ADHD: Home School beherenmaart 29, 2020
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders. Symptoms of ADHD may include difficulties with maintaining attention, being hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to be diagnosed a child must exhibit six or more symptoms for a minimum of six-months and must experience difficulties in two or more settings, such as home, school or in public.
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Common behaviors of ADHD may include:
- Failing to complete a task like homework.
- Difficulty maintaining attention during play.
- Problems following multiple-step instructions.
- Losing objects necessary to complete tasks or activities.
- Often fidgeting with hands or having difficulties sitting still.
- Runs or climbs in inappropriate situations, such as in the classroom.
- Blurts out answers or comments.
Currently, many parents are responsible to provide home school to their children due to school closures as a result of coronavirus restrictions. Although most school have provided assignments or online learning environments, parents may experience some challenges with keeping a child on-task that has been diagnosed with ADHD.
Below are some general strategies to help you and your child. It is important to remember that not all children with ADHD may benefit from the same strategies. If feasible, be sure to seek consultation from your therapist or mental health provider for specific recommendations based on your child’s needs.
Establish a routine. Flexibility is important to consider as life does not always go as planned. However, most children benefit from structure in their lives. Having a routine is particularly useful to help children with ADHD learn expectations. This may involve identifying a morning schedule or nighttime routine before bed.
Provide clear instructions. Kids with ADHD often have difficulties following directions or doing that that involve multiple steps. For example, if you tell them it’s time to go do your homework that could be overwhelming. You should provide simple instructions and break things down into smaller tasks. Instead of saying, “Go do your school work for the next hour”, say, “Work on reading 5 pages from your book.” It might also be helpful to use a simple behavior chart to reward the child along the way.
Practice positive parenting. If your child develops behavior problems or have difficulties staying on task, avoid yelling or punishing the child. These strategies will be less useful and will increase your frustration. Try to focus on encouraging positive behavior and do not overemphasize the “undesired behavior.” Children learn better when they are instructed on how to behave. To help your child, redirect them, so that they understand what’s expected of them. Boys Town – an organization focused on helping children reach their full potential – offers some parenting guides that mat be useful.
Create a reward system. Rewards and reinforcement is helpful to motivate children. You can use a different methods of positive reinforce such as a behavior charts to reinforce the behaviors you want to see or to reward children for meeting specific learning goals. One way is to use stickers or a token economy that rewards children after that have meet a pre-determined goal. For example, if they completed 4 out of 5 of their school assignments they can earn 20 minutes of playing a game with you or their peer. It’s important to remember that for the reward to be meaningful, it should be something that the child would enjoy. Sample reward coupons can be found at Free Printable Behavior Charts.
It’s important to keep in mind that each child will experience ADHD differently. If you have concerns that your child, you should consult a licensed mental health professional or pediatrician to determine specific recommendations.
Copyright 2020 Erlanger A. Turner, Ph.D.